About the Meeting of Minds Journal

The Meeting of Minds Journal of Undergraduate Research is specifically designed to offer undergraduate students the opportunity to experience the manuscript submission and review process. Students who participate in the Meeting of Minds conference are invited to submit a written version of their presentation to the Journal Review Board for publication in the volume which corresponds to the presentation year. The initial volume published in 1998 incorporated submitted papers from the inception of the conference through the past year (i.e., 1993-1998). This volume presents papers from the twenty-first annual conference held at the University of Michigan-Flint in May 2013.
The articles in this journal represent the work of undergraduate students, each with the assistance of a faculty mentor. The authors are all undergraduate students. The faculty mentor is clearly listed at the beginning of each paper, as is the academic unit and institution.
This journal represents the culmination of many years of experience in the collaboration process between three undergraduate universities in Michigan. It also represents a strong personal commitment of many individual faculty members to undergraduate research and creative endeavors.
The Meeting of Minds conference and this journal are a shared responsibility between the University of Michigan-Dearborn, the University of Michigan-Flint, and Oakland University. Each university accepts the responsibility to host the conference and subsequently to publish the journal on a rotating basis. The order of the responsibility follows the subsequent pattern: the University of Michigan-Dearborn in 2012, the University of Michigan-Flint in 2013, and Oakland University in 2014.


As institutions of higher learning, we are committed to advancing human knowledge through exploratory research. We take great pride in supporting undergraduate research; motivated by student passion and actualized through unparalleled energy and diligence. The University of Michigan-Flint, University of Michigan-Dearborn, and Oakland University collectively understand that the best way to engage our students is by fostering an environment best suited for conducting research and creative activities, using this environment to help them develop the skills and qualities necessary to compete in an ever-changing, fast-moving world. Each of our institutions fully realizes the importance of offering learning environments where our students have an opportunity to grow as scholars, innovators, explosive thinkers, and leaders.

In that spirit, over three hundred students, faculty, staff, and guests gathered on the campus of the University of Michigan-Flint to celebrate the 21st annual Meeting of Minds Undergraduate Research Conference. We were very privileged to host 174 oral and poster presentations; all professionally conducted by students working in direct partnership with members of each of our institution’s faculty. The intellectual findings shared by our students were put on display for hundreds of people to observe. Many of the students who presented at the event demonstrated further commitment to excellence and scholarship by submitting manuscripts from their projects. Gathered within the pages of this journal are forty-four high quality examples of the hard work of some of our student participants. As you will discover in reading this journal, the manuscripts cover a broad range of topical areas; showcasing our dedication to the interdisciplinary pursuit of knowledge. From biology to sociology, from art to business, our students offer significant contributions to research; contributions shared by us all. It is in this collection of knowledge that the future of our state, our nation, and indeed in our entire civilization rests. In that spirit, I would like to offer my thanks and congratulations to all of the student authors and faculty
who have devoted the time and effort required for this type of work. These manuscripts are a product of your diligence.

I would like to express my appreciation to the executive officers at each institution for the many ways in which you contribute to the success of the event and to undergraduate research in general. Additionally, I would like to thank all the people directly responsible for the ongoing success of the Meeting of Minds Undergraduate Research Conference. My colleagues at Oakland University (Laura Schovan and Robbie
Stewart) and the University of Michigan-Dearborn (Sue Gedert and Jennifer Zhao) are to be commended for faithfully serving on the planning committee and for offering their continued support. Additional thanks go out to the faculty who offered comments, evaluation, and editing for the papers selected for this publication. Finally, we acknowledge the hundreds of students and faculty at our respective campuses
who engage in outstanding research and activities. The wide assortment of exciting, innovative, and quality research you offer leaves an indelible mark on the academic community, and the world as a whole.

Thank you all for helping us to sustain a rich legacy of research and scholarship!

Andre Louis, MOM Planning Committee
University of Michigan-Flint

Table of Contents

Art History

Journey Toward Abstraction: Alvin Langdon Coburn’s Vortographs (PDF)
Nicole Peterson
Faculty Sponsor: Claude Baillargeon
Department of Art and Art History; Oakland University 

Craft in Detroit Architecture (PDF)
Caitlin Wunderlich
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Siegal
Department of Art and Art History; University of Michigan-Dearborn

Virtue, Power, & Profession: A Study of Women in Renaissance Portrait Medals (PDF)
Megan Milewski
Faculty Sponsor: Nicole Bensoussan
Department of Literature, Philosophy, and the Arts; University of Michigan-Dearborn

Maruki Toshi and Maruki Iri’s Hiroshima Murals and Religious Eschatology (PDF)
Nicole A. Batchik
Faculty Sponsor: Claude Baillargeon
Department of Art and Art History; Oakland University

Behavioral Sciences

Posttraumatic Growth and Medical Pathological Conditions: Examining the Role of Illness Perception in College Students (PDF)
Insia Thomas
Faculty Sponsor: Kanako Taku
Department of Psychology; Oakland University

Romantic Relationship Dissolutions: Assessing Posttraumatic Growth Cross-Culturally Between American and Japanese Undergraduate Students (PDF)
Kellie McGuire and Sharell Elam
Faculty Sponsor: Kanako Taku
Department of Psychology; Oakland University

The Influence of Disclosure and Religiosity on the Posttraumatic Growth of Bereaved Adolescents (PDF)
Sharell Elam and Kellie McGuire
Faculty Sponsor: Kanako Taku
Department of Psychology; Oakland University


Education Fever and Its Impact on South Korea (PDF)
Sunny Rishi
Faculty Sponsor: Ji-Eun Lee
Teacher Development and Educational Studies; Oakland University

Health Sciences

Speaking the Same Language: Uniformly Defining Critically Ill Patients for Foley Use to Decrease Catheter Utilizations in an Intermediate Care Unit (PDF)
Abigail O. Imarhiagbe
Faculty Sponsor:  Toni McCrum
Department of Nursing; University of Michigan-Flint

Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology

Medical Applications of Nanoparticles (PDF)
Carolyn M. D’Almeida and Bradley Roth
Faculty Sponsor: Bradley Roth
Department of Physics; Oakland University

3D Vector Modeling (PDF)
Timothy Elliott
Faculty Sponsor:  Mehrdad Simkani
Department of Mathematics; University of Michigan-Flint

Fatigue Failure Due to Variable Loading (PDF)
Daniel Hendrickson
Faculty Sponsor: Olanrewaju Aluko
Department of Computer Science, Engineering and Physics; University of Michigan-Flint

Demonstration of the Normal Modes of a System of Coupled Harmonic Oscillators (PDF)
Trang Nguyen, Jeremy Munsell, and Matthew Sutter
Faculty Sponsor: Chris Pearson
Department of Computer Science, Engineering, & Physics; University of Michigan-Flint

Medieval and Renaissance Studies

Happiness and the Meaning of Life (PDF)
Mariam K. Ayyash
Faculty Sponsor: Imran Aijaz
Department of Literature, Philosophy, and the Arts; University of Michigan-Dearborn

Montaigne’s Paris (PDF)
Angela Sabella
Faculty Sponsor: Gabriella Eschrich
Department of Language, Culture, and Communication; University of Michigan-Dearborn

The Power of Literature (PDF)
Katelyn Hovey
Faculty Sponsor: Gabriella Eschrich
Department of Language, Culture, and Communication; University of Michigan-Dearborn

Modern Languages and Literatures

Feminism in Medieval French Literature: The Role of Women Against Sexism (PDF)
Katherine Moore
Faculty Sponsor:  Stacey Hahn
Department of Modern Languages and Literatures; Oakland University

Social Sciences

John Dee: England’s Renaissance Man (PDF)
Frederick Spencer Rubin
Faculty Sponsor: Rayne Allinson
Department of Social Sciences; University of Michigan-Dearborn

The Immigrant Worker Memoir Project: Expectations and Realizations (PDF)
Yasemin R.
Faculty Sponsor: Ronald Stockton
Department of Social Sciences; University of Michigan-Dearborn

Biohazard: Unit 731 and the American Cover-Up (PDF)
Brandi Altheide
Faculty Sponsor: Roy Hanashiro
Department of History; University of Michigan-Flint