About the Meeting of Minds Journal

The Meeting of Minds Journal of Undergraduate Research is specifically designed to offer undergraduate students the opportunity to experience the manuscript submission and review process. Students who participate in the Meeting of Minds conference are invited to submit a written version of their presentation to the Meeting of Minds committee for publication in the volume which corresponds to the presentation year. The initial volume published in 1998 incorporated submitted papers from the inception of the conference through the past year (i.e., 1993-1998). This volume presents papers from the twenty-fourth annual conference held at the University of Michigan-Flint in May 2016.
 
The articles in this journal represent the work of undergraduate students, each with the assistance of a faculty mentor. The authors are all undergraduate students. The faculty mentor is clearly listed at the beginning of each paper, as is the academic unit and institution.
 
This journal represents the culmination of many years of experience in the collaboration process between three undergraduate universities in Michigan. It also represents a strong personal commitment of many individual faculty members to undergraduate research and creative endeavors.
 
The Meeting of Minds conference and this journal are a shared responsibility between the University of Michigan-Dearborn, the University of Michigan-Flint, and Oakland University. Each university accepts the responsibility to host the conference and subsequently to publish the journal on a rotating basis. The order of the responsibility follows the subsequent pattern: the University of Michigan-Flint in 2016, Oakland University in 2017, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn in 2018.

Preface

As institutions of higher learning, we are committed to advancing human knowledge through exploratory research. We take great pride in supporting undergraduate research; motivated by student passion and actualized through unparalleled energy and diligence. The University of Michigan-Flint, University of Michigan-Dearborn, and Oakland University collectively understand that the best way to engage our students is by fostering an environment best suited for conducting research and creative activities, using this environment to help them develop the skills and qualities necessary to compete in an ever-changing, fast-moving world. Each of our institutions fully realizes the importance of offering learning environments where our students have an opportunity to grow as scholars, innovators, explosive thinkers, and leaders.

In that spirit, on May 13, 2016, over three hundred students, faculty, staff, and guests gathered on the campus of the University of Michigan-Flint to celebrate the 24st annual Meeting of Minds Undergraduate Research Conference. We were very privileged to host 128 oral and poster presentations; all professionally conducted by students working in direct partnership with members of each of our institution’s faculty. The intellectual findings shared by our students were put on display for hundreds of people to observe. Many of the students who presented at the event demonstrated further commitment to excellence and scholarship by submitting manuscripts from their projects. Gathered within the pages of this journal are several examples of the hard work of some of our student participants. As you will discover in reading this journal, the manuscripts cover a broad range of topical areas; showcasing our dedication to the interdisciplinary pursuit of knowledge. From biology to sociology, from art to business, our students offer significant contributions to research; contributions shared by us all. It is in this collection of knowledge that the future of our state, our nation, and indeed in our entire civilization rests. In that spirit, I would like to offer my thanks and congratulations to all of the student authors and faculty who have devoted the time and effort required for this type of work. These manuscripts are a product of your diligence.

I would like to express my appreciation to the executive officers at each institution for the many ways in which you contribute to the success of the event and to undergraduate research in general. Additionally, I would like to thank all the people directly responsible for the ongoing success of the Meeting of Minds Undergraduate Research Conference. My colleagues at Oakland University (Beth Dawson, Anne Hitt, and Robbie Stewart) and the University of Michigan-Dearborn (Sue Gedert and Gabriella Scarlatta) are to be commended for faithfully serving on the planning committee and for offering their continued support. Additional thanks go out to the faculty who offered comments, evaluation, and editing for the papers selected for this publication. Finally, we acknowledge the hundreds of students and faculty at our respective campuses who engage in outstanding research and activities. The wide assortment of exciting, innovative, and quality research you offer leaves an indelible mark on the academic community, and the world as a whole.

Thank you all for helping us to sustain a rich legacy of research and scholarship!

Andre Louis, MOM Planning Committee
University of Michigan-Flint

Table of Contents

Communications

Walking the Line between Eroticism and Innocence (PDF)
Jillian Hering
Faculty Sponsor: Rebekah Farrugia
Oakland University

To Tea or Not To Tea (PDF)
Audrey Sharp
Faculty Sponsor: Rebekah Farrugia
Oakland University

Health Education

Descriptive Epidemiology in the Incidence and Mortality of Different Childhood and Adolescent Cancers in Michigan (PDF)
Jeremy Blankenship
Faculty Sponsor: Gergana Kodjebacheva
University of Michigan-Flint

Modern Languages and Literature

Translation into English of the French "Femmes Pirates - Les écumeuses des mers" by Marie-Eve Sténuit (PDF)
Jossette Bailey
Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Law-Sullivan
Oakland University

19th-Century Marriage: Space for Fulfillment or Intellectual Prison? (PDF)
Kelsey Margetic
Faculty Sponsor: Cecilia Saenz-Roby
​Oakland University

Political Symbolism in Latin American Romanticism (PDF)
Conner Susalla
Faculty Sponsor: Cecilia Saenz-Roby
​Oakland University

Physics

Spewing Black Holes I: Observational Constraints on Velocity and Structure (PDF)
Adam Crutcher, Hamael Changezi, Paul Manion, Justin Wisby, Daniel Agar
Faculty Sponsor: Rajib Ganguly
University of Michigan-Flint

Spewing Black Holes III: a Theoretical Structure (PDF)
Adam Crutcher, Hamael Changezi, Paul Manion, Justin Wisby, Daniel Agar
Faculty Sponsor: Rajib Ganguly
University of Michigan-Flint

Political Science

Marxism and the Baha’i Faith (PDF)
Joshua Koss
Faculty Sponsor: Alan Epstein
Oakland University

Psychology

Emotion Regulation Difficulties as a Moderator of the Relationship between Perfectionism and Depression in College Students (PDF)
Jessica Drews
Faculty Sponsor: Scott Pickett
Oakland University

Wrongdoers and Instigators: Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in a Sample of High School Students (PDF)
Lauren Harrison, Geena Osowski, Shelby Seyburn, and Aundreah Walenski
Faculty Sponsor: Kanako Taku
Oakland University

Relationship Between Music Preference and Personality in a College Student Sample (PDF)
Lindsey Hieber
Faculty Sponsor: Marianne McGrath
University of Michigan-Flint

Belongingness and Subjective Well-Being Considering Conformity and Perceived Stigmatization (PDF)
Alicia Latimer
Faculty Sponsor: Marianne McGrath
University of Michigan-Flint

Social Work

The Burning of the Declaration of Independence (PDF)
David Courter
Faculty Sponsor: Otrude Moyo
University of Michigan-Flint

Sociology

Greening and Grassroots in Detroit: The Importance of Engagement with Detroit Residents Regarding Greening Infrastructure (PDF)
Paris Freeman
Faculty Sponsor: Paul Draus
University of Michigan-Dearborn

School District Quality and Crime: A Cross-Sectional Statistical Analysis (PDF)
Chelsea Ringl
Faculty Sponsor: Dennis Condron
Oakland University